As kids learn and develop, their brains build stronger connections between cells – called synapses. Nicotine changes how these synapses form, impacting how a child functions and behaves.
Several studies have reported decrements in visuospatial attentional performance and impulsive action in adolescent smokers, which persist after controlling for presmoking levels of cognitive function.
Nicotine Is Addictive
Nicotine is the main addictive chemical in cigarettes, and it’s also found in cigars, chewing tobacco, and e-cigarettes. It’s a central nervous system stimulant that increases heart rate and oxygen flow, creating feelings of pleasure and reward.
When a person smokes, CA tobacco experts emphasize that nicotine rushes into the brain and causes a release of dopamine. This neurotransmitter promotes addiction and makes it harder to control impulses. It also rewires parts of the brain related to attention, concentration, and learning, causing long-term effects that can make it hard for people to quit smoking.
Adolescents’ developing brains are susceptible to nicotine, which is why so many teens are at risk of becoming hooked on tobacco products. That’s why it’s so important for teens to avoid these dangerous products, which are linked to cancer, lung disease, heart problems, and other health issues.
Nicotine Affects Memory
Adolescents who smoke can face long-lasting problems with memory, learning, and impulse control. But they are also guinea pigs for the effects of nicotine on their young brains.
Nicotine acts on the brain by mimicking acetylcholine. This allows it to act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, which play a role in desire, reward, and impulse control. These receptors are located in the human brain’s prefrontal cortex (PFC), which plays a key role in attention and decision-making.
Several studies have found that a history of smoking during adolescence is associated with disturbances in working memory and reduced PFC activation. Moreover, the number of years a person has been smoking correlates with declines in cognitive function in adulthood.
The adolescent brain is still maturing, and the PFC is one of the last areas to mature fully. Recent research in rodents has started to uncover causal relations between adolescent smoking and later deficits in attention performance. The cause of these deficits may be related to changes in synaptic plasticity in the PFC that persist with adolescent nicotine exposure.
Nicotine Affects Mood
Nicotine changes mood and can make adolescents less able to control their behavior. This can lead to impulsive decisions, putting them in dangerous situations. Studies show that adolescent smokers are more likely to engage in risky behaviors than non-smokers, and they tend to underestimate the health risks of smoking.
The adolescent brain is still developing, which makes it particularly vulnerable to nicotine’s effects. The prefrontal cortex is one of the last regions to mature, which means that adolescent smokers can experience long-term cognitive deficits.
The adolescent brain is also more sensitive to nicotine’s rewarding effects, which can make it easier for them to become addicted. Compared to adults, adolescent smokers develop symptoms of dependence faster, they find smoking more rewarding, and they underestimate the health risks of tobacco. This could explain why more than half of all 15-year-olds smoke a cigarette every day and why many others experiment with other drugs of abuse. Adolescent smokers also exhibit poor attention performance. This is due to a lack of prefrontal cortical control, which is impaired by chronic nicotine exposure.
Nicotine Affects Attention
Adolescents are at a critical stage of brain development. They are just starting to build stronger connections – or synapses – between brain cells, which makes them more susceptible to new experiences and more likely to get addicted.
Research shows that nicotine interferes with these brain processes, which can have long-term effects on attention and impulsivity. For example, researchers found that nicotine exposure during adolescence led to persistent deficits in visuospatial attention tasks. It also reduced the accuracy of correct stimulus detection and increased premature responses.
Nicotine is known to increase levels of activity in the anterior cingulate region, which can impair cognitive control.
Nicotine Affects Learning
While research has focused primarily on its short-term effects, nicotine can also cause long-lasting changes in how the brain learns and processes information. A recent study, for example, showed that adolescent smokers have less grey matter in the left frontal lobe, which is associated with rule-breaking and decision-making. In another study, adolescent nicotine exposure led to longer delays in responding to reward-associated stimuli.
Because the adolescent brain is still developing, it is especially vulnerable to nicotine’s negative effects. This is because the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in regulating cognitive control, is not fully mature at this age. As a result, adolescents progress to nicotine dependence faster than adults, find the drug more rewarding, and are more likely to be influenced by the smoking behavior of their peers. They also are more likely to develop poor decisions based on impulsive reasoning and to be susceptible to social pressure. Ultimately, these factors contribute to the high rates of addiction and substance abuse among teens. This makes it especially important for parents to talk to their teenagers about the dangers of vaping and smoking tobacco.