human largest bone

Scientists have worked out that in most children under eight years old and adults over 18, this bone is approximately a quarter of the total body height. The only time this changes is when children reach their teenage growth spurt at around 10–15 years old.

General Features and Attachments of the Femur

The femur is the longest bone of the human body an approximate length in a Delta is 45 centimeters that is approximately one-fourth of the total height of an individual and a typical long bone so it has got two wines up an end and lower end 

Upper End and Lower End in Right Femur 

upper and lower end operon can be identified by ahead and lower end bears two condyles medial and lateral.

Upper End:-

The upper end has got a globular head a constricted neck and to track enters the greater trochanter and lesser trochanter.

The first head is forming more than half of a sphere and it is smooth articular any living it is covered by hyaline cartilage except in the center. Depression is termed as fovea nor fovea capitis whereas the rest of the portion is articular and it articulates with the acetabulum together they form hip joint. The acetabulum and has got a corresponding smooth articular surface and together they form a ball and socket variety of synovial joints the fovea provides attachment to the ligament of the head of the femur ( also known as round ligament of the femur, ligamentum teres femoris, or the foveal ligament) is a ligament located in the hip. It is triangular and somewhat flattened. which extends from acetabular notch. the fovea capitis so this round ligament will provide a passage for transmission of blood vessels the blood vessels are coming from branches of medial circumflex femoral and obturator vessels and a small circular area around the is supplied by these vessels similar like ligament Imperius femur is in our body.  

Two other ligaments which are having similar names namely ligamentum teres hepatitis and ligamentum teres are right next to the head is a constricted neck its wears two surfaces anterior and posterior has got two borders apart and lower the neck is continuous below with a shaft the entire surface is flat and it bears multiple oblique grooves.

The entire surface is continuous with the anterior surface of the shaft the meeting point is represented by intertrochanteric line now the posterior surface it is concave or convex and bears a faint groove which Lodge is tendon off obturator externus the obturator externus muscle takes origin from the outer aspect of obturator foramen then the tendon runs spirally along the inferior and posterior aspect of the neck. GRU lodges the tendon of the operator externus which is finally inserted into the trochanteric fossa. The posterior surface is continuous as greater trochanter which is a junction between the neck and the shaft literally and posteriorly the neck and shaft they are demarcated by intertrochanteric crest the upper border is straight and concave whereas lower water is oblique and flat the approximate length of neck is 5 centimeter in adult and which is directed upward medially and slightly forward so if you see it from in front you can realize that it is directed upward and medially whereas if you see it from above right these are the quantiles so if you put it in the anatomical position you can realize that the neck is not directed directly medially but it is directed slightly for so their forms an angle which is termed as the angle of nt version or it is also called as the angle of femoral torsion. 

If you draw an imaginary line passing from center of head and neck and if you draw another line which is passing from the posterior aspect of both the condyles is super view The two imaginary lines will meet at 15 to 20-degree angle which is termed as the angle of femoral torture or angle of anti version. similarly when you draw an imaginary line passing from the center of the head and neck if you match it with the long axis of the shaft their form an angle between Nick and shot which is termed as a makeshift angle. the imaginary axis passing from the center of head and neck it meets with the long axis passing from the center of the shaft their forms an angle which is approximately 126 degree in adult which is the normal range or are Norma it is also termed as neck-shaft angle or femoral neck angle or it is also termed as CCD angle which means kaput column diaphyseal angle so in adult it is around 126 degree whereas in newborn the normal angle is around 150 degree so here you can see the purpose of the neck is to keep the shaft away from the pelvis and that permits free-swinging moments.

From acetabulum the weight will shift to the head than to make and then to the shaft so to overcome the bending forces inner aspect of the neck is having a strong bony pet rest which is termed as kalcker femoral ik along the lateral aspect of make and shaft Junction there is a greater trochanter which is having three surfaces lateral medial and interior plus it has got two borders superior and posterior border the medial surface has got depression and this depression is within the socket so as the name given to it is trochanteric fossa receives insertion of operator externus and it is a site of formation of trochanteric anastomosis.

The medial surface bares of flat impression which receives insertion of operator internals with jameelah superior and inferior the anterior surface is rough and it receives insertion of gluteus minimus muscle. the lateral surface has got an oblique Ridge that runs downward and forward and this Ridge receives insertion of the tendon of the gluteus medius. The Ridge forms two triangles along the lateral surface one is in front and one behind the anterior triangle is related to a bursa that separates bone from the tangle of gluteus medius whereas the posterior triangle is related to another versa which separates this bone width tendon of gluteus maximus the upper border along its postural superior part shows a bony elevation the slightly turn and this receives insertion of PI reformists whereas the posterior border below is continuous as an intertrochanteric crest.

The lesser trochanter is another bony elevation which is situated at posteromedial aspect of neck and shaft junction it is conical and both a stroke enters our example of traction epiphysis so it is providing attachment to muscles now anterior aspect of lesser trochanter near its apex this portion provides insertion to sauce major whereas near the pace there is the insertion of Hylia cosmos earth the junction between the entire surface of nake and shaft it is represented by an intertrochanteric line, which provides attachment to two ligaments namely joint capsule for the hip joint and Helio femoral ligament and it provides attachment to two muscles in upper part highest fibers of vastus lateralis any lower part to the highest fibers of vastus medialis. In the posterior aspect, the neck-shaft junction between two trochanters are represented by the sharp bony Ridge which is termed as intertrochanteric crest it is extending from the greater trochanter to the lesser trochanter along its midpoint you can see a tubercle which is termed as quadrate tubercle which receives insertion of quadratus femoris.

The apex of the greater trochanter the center of the head and pubic tubercle they lie in the same horizontal plane. the shaft is cylindrical and if you see it from the side it will show ventral convexity and specifically in the middle third it has got three borders and three surfaces so the borders are medial-lateral and posterior whereas the surface is our anterior medial and lateral and out of the three borders if you see the posterior border specifically in the middle third this portion is termed as Linea Aspera which is a strong bony buttress if you see the bone from the side this Linea Aspera will resist compressive forces and it prevents anterior bowing of the shop. The closely Linea Aspera shows a medial later late and an intermediate area so the middle third has got medial border lateral border and posterior border in the form of Linea Aspera and it has got anterior medial and ESL faces if you dress the medial leap of Linea Aspera above it is continuous as a spiral line you can see spiral line obviously the name is suggestive of it is spirally oriented and it in circles the upper third of the shaft and above it is continuous as intertrochanteric line and if you trace lateral leap of Linea Aspera above it forms a rough margin lateral margin know for ah failure this rough area is termed as gluteal tuberosity and the trace this lateral margin above it will reach up to the greater trochanter so both medial and lateral lip of Linea Aspera above the diverge and the form a triangular posterior surface that shows a roughness in its lateral part which is termed as gluteal tuberosity.